Vitamin : Macam Dan Peranannya



Macam-Macam Vitamin Yang Larut Dalam Air dan peranannya bagi tubuh - Seperti yang telah kita ketahui vitamin merupakan salah satu zat makanan yang sangat diperlukan oleh tubuh kita, vitamin pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh C. Punk pada tahun 1912, secara garis besar fungsi vitamin yaitu untuk pembebasan energi dan penyusun pigmen mata. Menurut sifat kelarutannya, vitamin dapat dibagi menjadi 2 golongan, yaitu:

1. Vitamin yang larut dalam air, yaitu vitamin B dan C
2. Vitamin yang larut dalam lemak, yaitu vitamin A,D,E dan K.
kali ini Bank Of Science akan membantu anda mengenal lebih jauh tentang macam-macam vitamin yang larut dalam air serta peranannya bagi tubuh kita yang mungkin belum anda ketahui sebelumnya.
 
Vitamin yang larut dalam air


1.Vitamin B1 (thiamin, aneurin, antiberi-beri)
Fungsi:
a) Membantu proses metabolisme karbohidrat,
b) Penyerapan air dan lemak,
c) Memelihara kadar air dalam tubuh.
Defisiensi vitamin B1 (kekurangan vitamin B1):
a) Dapat menyebabkan selera makan berkurang,
b) Pertumbuhan tubuh terhenti,
c) Dapat menyebabkan penyakit beri-beri,
d) Menyebabkan gangguan susunan saraf dan jantung.
Sumber: jagung, hati, gandum, ragi, kulit ari beras, susu, dan kuning telur.
2. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin,lactoflavin, antipelagra)
Fungsi:
a) Penyusun enzim oksidasi dalam sel,
b) Pemindahan rangsang sinar di mata.
Defisiensi:
a) Luka pada sudut-sudut bibir atau mulut,
b) Menyebabkan penyakit pelagra dan chelitis,
c) Penglihatan mata menjadi kabur.
Sumber: telur, hati, dan ragi.

3.Vitamin B6 (adermin atau piridoksin)
Fungsinya adalah membantu pembentukan sel-sel darah merah dan pertumbuhan serta kerja urat saraf. Defisiensi: 
a) Terlambatnya pertumbuhan pada masa anak-anak,
b) Dapat menyebabkan penyakit pelagra, anemia, dan konstipasi (sulit buang air besar), c) Kejang-kejang dan sangat peka terhadap sangsangan.
Sumber: roti, ikan, daging dan sayuran.
4.Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 adalah vitamin antipernisiosa (mencegah kelumpuhan) terdapat di hati dan fungsinya sebagai pembentuk sel darah merah.
5. Asam nikotin dan niasin
Fungsi:
a) Berperan dalam proses pertumbuhan dan perbanyakan sel,
b) Mencegah penyakit pelagra.
Berikut adalah tanda-tanda pelagra:
a) Dermatitis -> kulit memerah, mengelupas dan pecah-pecah, anemia, eksim yang simetris kiri dan kanan tubuh. b) Diare -> buang air besar terus menerus dan terjadi pendarahan pada usus dan gusi. c) Dimensia -> terjadi kekacauan mental, pelupa, letih dan suka melamun. Sumber: susu, bayam, kol, kedelai, hati dan ragi.

6. Asam pantotenat
Asam pantotenat sebagai bahan pelengkap koenzim A yang berperan sebagai oksidasi. Defisiensi asam pentotenat menimbulkan dermatitis interitis (luka pada usus).
Sumber: hati, beras, daging, dan ragi.

7. Para amino asam benzoat
Terdapat di hati, dan ragi. Berfungsi untuk mencegah tumbuhnya uban.
8.Kolin
Kolin terdapat pada beras dan hati. Defisiensi kolin dapat menimbulkan penimbunan lemak di sekeliling hati, gangguan pada kulit dan ginjal.
9. Biotin
Vitamin ini penting dalam reaksi deaminasi, dekarboxilase, dan oksidasi. Apabila kelurangan vitamin ini menimbulkan gejala seperti pelagra.
Sumber: hati, tomat, ragi, kentang, dan buah-buahan.

10. Vitamin C (asam askorbinat) 
Fungsi:
a) Memengaruhi pembentukan trombosit,
b) Memengaruhi kerja kelenjar anak ginjal,
c) Membantu oksidasi dan dehidrasi dalam sel.
Defisiensi:
a) Terjadi pendarahan pada gusi dan di bawah kulit
b) Menurunnya permeabilitas sel kapiler darah yang mengakibatkan pendarahan dalam sumsum tulang dan kerusakan dalam tulang. Sumber: sayur-sayuran, buah-buahan, hati dan ginjal.

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